First aid - basic - what to do
What is first aid?
If your friend has an accident then the first person there will be the first aider or the person who will help her until others get there.
First aid is about using your common sense in ways that will keep your friend safe without doing harm to her.
Its a great idea for older children and adults to do a first aid course so that you know what to do to help others.
At school, all teachers and other staff will know what to do; in other places ask an adult to help.
Here is something to help you remember what to do if you are the only person around and your friend has been hurt badly.
The letters stand for
D = Danger
R = Response
A = Airway
B = Breathing
C = Circulation
Before you do anything to help your friend make sure that it is safe for you to help her.
If it is safe for you but your friend is in a dangerous place, like the middle of the road if she has fallen off her bike, then get her to move to a safer place.
If you have to move her yourself, move her by dragging her by both ankles - slowly and carefully to the side of the road.
If her legs are injured you may have to pull her by her elbows or wrists with her hands above her head. Go slowly so that you don't bang her head.
Never move an unconscious person who may have a bad injury [like being hit by a car or falling from a tree] unless there is no other way of keeping her safe.
NEVER stand out in the road trying to make cars stop. This is very dangerous.
Send someone for help if you can.
Call out to your friend.
If she doesn't answer or move she could be unconscious.
If she is unconscious and lying on her back she may need to be turned onto her side to make sure that she can breathe well.
Send someone to get help.
Tilt her head back to open her airway.
Look and feel if anything is in your friend's mouth and scoop it out with your middle fingers.
Turn your friend onto her side into the recovery position.
The pictures will show you how.
One arm out, the other arm folded to touch the shoulder
Support the head and lift the knee, keep your knees close to the body of your friend. Roll gently away from you.
Do this very carefully and slowly so that you do not cause any other injury.
Check to see if she is breathing.
You can do this by watching or feeling her lower chest to see if it is moving up and down.
You can check by putting your ear close to her face, so that you can feel or listen to find out if there is air coming out of her mouth.
What if your friend is not breathing?
You need to start E.A.R.
E.A.R can be difficult to do well. The following steps are ones that are taught to people doing a First Aid course.
E means expired [or breathed out] The first aid person breathes air out of her lungs into the other person.
A means air.
R means resuscitation [say re-suss-it-ay-shun] helping to get the person breathing again by herself.
Turn her onto her back again.
Kneel at her side.
Tilt her head backwards like the diagram.
With your hand on the top of her head hold her head tilted back.
Open her mouth using your thumb and first finger under her chin.
Close her nose by resting your cheek across her nostrils [OR use the thumb and first finger of the hand that is holding her head tilted] to close her nostrils.
Breathe 5 quick puffs of air into your friend's mouth.
Check to see if she is breathing.
If she is not, then you will continue to breathe for five more breaths.
Like this - counting 1, 2, 3, 4, slowly.
1 - Breathe - then look at her chest while you count - 2, 3, 4.
Watch carefully and stop breathing for her as soon as your friend starts breathing for herself.
Turn her back onto her side and stay with her.
Turn her onto her side carefully but quickly as she may vomit [throw up.]
If she does vomit then you may need to clear her mouth again if she is not fully awake.
Check to see if there is a pulse.
Feel the side of your friend's neck.
Or find the pulse in her wrist (the drawings below show you how.)
If you can feel her pulse then count it for one minute so that you can let ambulance officers know of any changes.
Talk quietly to your friend.
Get help if you can.
If no-one is around stay with her until someone comes along.